Parts of Speech

In the English language words are grouped into different categories called Parts of Speech. There are 9 Parts of Speech in the English.

Image of things, a person and map icon as an example of nouns.

Definition of a Noun

Types of Nouns

  • A common noun is a person, place or thing that is a general object, not a specific object.
  • A common noun names an object or thing like a book, or names a place like a forest or a mall
  • Common nouns are only capitalized when it starts a sentence.
  • A proper noun is a person, place or thing that is a specific object, not a general object.
  • A proper noun names people for example Sally, or a specific name we give to a place like England, or a specific name of a company like Apple, or Mc Donald’s.
  • Proper nouns are always capitalized.
Image examples sentence of different types Nouns

Other Types of Nouns with Examples

Image A Type of Noun - Countable Noun. Hand with 3 fingers.

Countable Noun

A countable noun is a noun you can count using numbers.
E.g. 5 fingers, 2 dogs, 5 bags.
How many fingers do you see?

Image A Type of Noun - Uncountable Noun - A Glass of water

Uncountable Noun

An uncountable noun is a noun you can not count.
E.g. water, hair, love
Can I please have some water?

Image of a Pizza to symbolize a Concrete Noun which you can experience with your 5 senses

Concrete Noun

A concrete noun you experience with your senses.
E.g. You can see, hear, taste or smell it
Think about your favourite food.

Image of a school of fish as an example of a collective noun.

Collective Noun

A collective noun represents a group of people, animals or things.
E.g. A group of fish is called a school of fish.
E.g. Many players in a group is called a team.

Image of Daughter and mom loving each other. Example of an abstract noun.

Abstract Noun

An abstract noun is an idea, feeling, or state of being.
E.g. Love, surprise, happiness
Think about your emotions and how you feel.

Possessive Noun

A possessive noun shows ownership with ‘s or s’.
E.g. That is Jack’s bag. (singular possessive noun)
E.g. Those are the boys’ bags. (plural possessive noun)

Image of a boy jumping woman thinking and a girl talking to give an example of Verbs

Definition of a Verb

Types of Verbs

  • A Dynamic verb describes a physical action, and can also be called an action verb.
  • E.g. The boy jumps. Or E.g. The woman talks.
  • A dynamic verb lets you know what the subject is doing.
  • We use Stative verb to describe a state of being, not a physical action.
  • E.g. I believe you are correct.
  • We mostly use Stative verbs to express what we think and feel.
  • Careful! Some words can be both dynamic and stative.
Image of an example sentence showing some of the types of verbs you get.

Other Types of Verbs with Examples

Image of a man pointing to himself as an example of a helping verb

Helping Verb

Helping verbs help the main verb in tenses to make sense.
E.g. He a man = He is a man.
Some people call it an auxillary verb.

Image of small girl going to bed as an example of a modal verb

Modal Verb

A Modal verb changes the meaning of the main verb slightly.
Use modals to suggest, ask permission, be polite etc.
E.g. You should go to bed.

Image of girl who walked to school as an example of a regular verb

Regular Verb

In English tenses Regular verbs end with -ed / -d.
Used in the “simple past tense”.
E.g. Sally walked to school.

Image of a school of fish as an example of a collective noun.

Linking Verb

A linking verb links the subject with a word (adjective),
that gives information about the subject.
E.g. Jenny felt sleepy after dinner.

Image of a boy eating candy as an example of a irregular verb

Irregular Verb

Irregular Verbs don’t end with -ed / -d.
The verb can change if it’s Verb 1, Verb 2, or Verb 3.
E.g. Eat / ate / eaten. Jimmy ate candy all day.

Image of man getting into car as an example of a phrasal verb in POS

Phrasal Verb

When you use a verb and preposition together it’s called a phrasal verb.
E.g. Get in the car.
Here “get in” is the phrasal verb.

Image of a woman with blue hair, Tower and strong man as an example of Adjectives.

Definition of an Adjective

Types of Adjectives

  • A descriptive adjective describes or adds meaning to nouns and pronouns.
  • It is the most used type of adjective.
  • For example, “He told a joke.” Is a joke always funnny? No. He could have told a “bad” joke too.
  • A proper adjective is an adjective that is capitalized (c = C) and comes from a Proper Noun.
  • E.g. This is a Shakespearean poem. (Person Proper Noun = Shakespeare)
  • E.g. That is the American flag. (Place Proper Noun = America)
Image of some example sentence showing some of the types of adjectives.

Other Types of Adjectives with Examples

Image of a boy and girl. The boy is taller to describe a comparative adjective

Comparative Adjectives

A comparative adjective compared two things.
E.g. The boy is taller than the girl.
E.g. The red pen is more expensive than the blue pen.

Image of 3 winners to describe a superlative adjective

Superlative Adjectives

A superlative adjective compares more that two things.
E.g. That is the tallest building in town.
E.g. The girl is the smartest in the class.

Image of a teacher pointing out a ruler that is his as an example of a possessive Adjective.

Possessive Adjectives

A possessive adjective shows ownership and comes before the noun. It is similar to a possessive pronoun but it doesn’t replace the noun.
E.g. This is my ruler.

Image of an animal hungry for food to describe an interrogative adjective

Interrogative Adjectives

An interrogative adjective begins a question sentence
and is followed by a noun or pronoun.
E.g. What, Which, Whose. “What food do you want?”

Image of a basket of apples to illustrate an indefinite adjective

Indefinite Adjectives

An indefinite adjective is used to describe a whole group,
and doesn’t point out specific nouns in the group.
E.g. Some of the apples were rotten.

Image of office workers all getting a bonus as an example of a distribute adjective.

Distributive Adjectives

A distributive adjective refers to individuals in a group.
Example words are, “either, neither, both, each and every”
E.g. Every person in the office will get a bonus.

Image of a lady enjoying the quiet night as an example of an attributive adjective.

Attributive Adjectives

An attributive adjective tells us what feature of a noun we’re interested in.
E.g. I love the quiet night.
Here I love the night because it is quite.

Image of an old (aged) book to describe a participial adjective

Participial Adjectives

A participial adjective is an adjective that acts like a participle.
It usually ends with -ed or -ing and comes from verbs.
E.g. This is an aged book.

Image of an old lady and her cookies. This demonstrates a limiting adjective

Limiting Adjectives

A limiting adjective restricts, instead of describing the noun or pronoun.
E.g. These are your cookies..

Image of a man as a super hero to illustrate a predicate Adjective

Predicate Adjectives

A predicate adjective is an adjective found not next to the noun or pronoun.
E.g Bob is awesome.

Image of a clock girl shouting and degrees for an example of adverbs

Definition of an Adverb

Image of a sentence with examples different types of Adverbs

The 5 Types of Adverbs with Examples

Image of a boy going to school as an example of a time adverb

Adverbs of Time

Adverbs of time gives information “when” a verb is done.
E.g. Yesterday I went to school.
When did I go to school? Yesterday.

Image of a cat singing loudly as an example of an adverb of manner.

Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of manner describes how a task was carried out.
E.g. Mark sang loudly in the shower.
How did Mark sing? Loudly!

Image of a boy letting his mom into the house as an example of a place adverb

Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of Place describes “where” a verb is happening.
E.g. It is hot let’s go inside.
Where should we go? Inside.

Image of a sleepy frog as an example of an adverb of frequency

Adverbs of Frequency

Adverbs of Frequency descibes “how often” a verb is happening.
E.g. I usually go to bed late.
How often do you go to bed late? Usually.

Image of a girl incredibly hot as an example of a degree adverb.

Adverbs of Degree

Adverbs of Degree gives the information “how much” or to what level a verb is done.
E.g. Today is incredibly hot.
To what level do you think it was hot? Incredibly hot!

Image of 3 people giving an example of pronouns

Definition of a Pronoun

Types of Pronoun

  • A personal pronouns replaces people, places or things.
  • E.g. I (subject pronoun) really like her (object pronoun).
  • E.g. You (subject pronoun) found me (object pronoun)!
  • A possessive pronoun shows ownership.
  • E.g. The book is his.
  • E.g. My friend is late.
Image of a sentence with many different types of pronouns.

Other Types of Pronouns with Examples

Image of two arrows to demonstrate this and that in demonstrative pronouns.

Demonstrative Pronouns

A demonstrative pronoun points at something.
E.g. I like that dress, not this one.
“This” and “That are demonstrative pronouns.

Image of people learning English as an example of an indefinite pronoun

Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun makes a non-specific reference.
E.g. Anyone can learn English.
Anyone does not refer to a specific person.

Image of a woman looking into a mirror as an example of reflexive pronoun

Reflexive Pronouns

A reflexive pronoun is a pronoun that refers back to a person or thing.
These pronouns end with -self / -selves.
E.g. I cannot look at myself.

Image of a man pointing as an example of a relative pronoun

Relative Pronouns

A relative pronoun relates one part of a sentence with another.
E.g. The man who fell got hurt.
Relative pronouns include, who, whom, when, why, where, whose, that.

Image of a cat wondering what to do next as an example of an interrogative pronoun.

Interrogative Pronouns

An interrogative pronoun asks a question.
E.g. What should I do now?
Interrogative pronouns include, What, whom, who.

Image of a boy loving a girl as an example of a reciprocal pronoun.

Reciprocal Pronouns

A receprocal pronoun show mutual action.
E.g. We both like each other.
Receprocal pronouns include, One another, each other.

Image of a mom and three kinds as an example of types of prepositions

Definition of a Preposition

Image of a sentence with many prepositions

Other Types of Prepositions with Examples

Image of a clock and a calendar as an example of preposition of time.

Prepositions of Time

Prepositions of time are:
at – a specific time (e.g. at 6:00am)
on – days (eg. on Friday)
in – months (e.g. in June)

Image of cats around a box as an example of prepositions of place.

Prepositions of Place

Prepositions of place are:
in – spaces (e.g. in my bag)
on – place (e.g. on the table)
at – specific place (e.g. at the gate)

Image of a boat going under the bridge as an example of preposition of movement

Prepositions of Movement

Prepositions of movement are:
in, out, around, over, under,
through, up, down, towards, across.
E.g. The boat went under the bridge.

Image of a doctor as an example of preposition of manner

Prepositions of Manner

Prepositions of manner are words that show
the way something happens.
Words like, by, as, in, with.
E.g. She worked as a doctor.

Image of a boy talking about Elvis as an example of preposition of agent

Prepositions of Agent

Prepositions of agent is a thing that is the caused by another thing.
E.g. The song was sang by Elvis.
Here “by” is the agent. We can also use “with”

Image of a lady looking at her watch as an example of preposition of measure.

Prepositions of Measure

Prepositions of measure specifies a value or measurement.
They are the words, By, of, at.
E.g. He was late by 10 minutes.

Image of a man with a boat to describe a preposition of possession.

Prepositions of Possession

Prepositions of possession communicate that
something belongs to a person, animal or thing.
Use the words, Of, In, At, With, On.
E.g. I love a man with a boat.

Image of many people at the office as an example of conjunctions.

Definition of a Conjunction

Image of a sentence with examples different types of Conjunctions

Types of Conjunctions with Examples

Image of a man lonely that he broke up as an example of a subordinating conjunction

Subordinating Conjunctions

A subordinating conjunction links
dependent clauses to independent clauses.
The subordinate clause clarifies the relationship between
the two clauses, to show contrast or cause-and-effect.
Examples conjunctions are; because, since and after.
E.g. I am lonely since we broke up.

Image of a cute and smart woman as an example of a correlative conjunction.

Correlative Conjunctions

A correlative conjunction works in pairs to join words together.
The parts in the sentence carry equal importance.
Examples of correlative conjunctions are;
either or, such that / not only, but also
E.g. Not only is she cute, but also smart.

Image of a girl with chocolate and strawberry ice cream coordinating

Coordinating Conjunctions

A coordinating conjunction links equal parts of a sentence
such as ; phrases or independent clauses.
A comma (,) joins two independent clauses.
at – specific place (e.g. at the gate)
Examples of coordinating conjunctions;
For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, and So.
It’s easy to remember FANBOYS.
E.g. I like chocolate ice-cream, and I like strawberry ice-cream.

Image of a lady walking past a shop with 2 dresses as an example of determiners

Definition of a Determiner

Image of a sentence with examples different types of Determiners

Other Types of Determiner with Examples

Image of a man thinking whether to buy a cat or car as an example of an article.

Article Determiner

Are we referring to a specific noun or not?
An example of an article is; a / an, the.
the = definite article
a/an = indefinite article
E.g. I want to buy a cat. (here I want to buy any cat, not a specific one)
E.g. I want to buy the cat. (here I want to buy a specific cat)

Image of a man pointing this and that as an example of a demonstrative determiner

Demonstrative Determiner

A demonstrative determiner gives
information about a noun
and gives us reference if it is close are far away.
An example is; this, that, these, those.
This – something that is close to us.
That – something that is far away.
These – things that are close.
Those – for things that are far away from us.
This and that are singular, and these and those are plural.

Possessive Determiner

Possessive determiners shows possession (or ownership)
of a noun (someone, something, or some place).
An example of a possessive determiner is;
1st person; my / our
2nd person; your
3rd person; his, her, its / their

Quantifier Determiner

Quantifiers tells us (or suggests) the amount of a noun.
An example of a quantifier includes; most, more, some, many, much.
All, every, most, many, some, (a) few, any, no (countable nouns)
much, (a) little, least, most, no (uncountable nouns)
Quantifiers determiners are written in front of an adjective.