In the English language words are grouped into different categories called Parts of Speech. There are 9 Parts of Speech in the English.
A countable noun is a noun you can count using numbers.
E.g. 5 fingers, 2 dogs, 5 bags.
How many fingers do you see?
An uncountable noun is a noun you can not count.
E.g. water, hair, love
Can I please have some water?
A concrete noun you experience with your senses.
E.g. You can see, hear, taste or smell it
Think about your favourite food.
A collective noun represents a group of people, animals or things.
E.g. A group of fish is called a school of fish.
E.g. Many players in a group is called a team.
An abstract noun is an idea, feeling, or state of being.
E.g. Love, surprise, happiness
Think about your emotions and how you feel.
A possessive noun shows ownership with ‘s or s’.
E.g. That is Jack’s bag. (singular possessive noun)
E.g. Those are the boys’ bags. (plural possessive noun)
Helping verbs help the main verb in tenses to make sense.
E.g. He a man = He is a man.
Some people call it an auxillary verb.
A Modal verb changes the meaning of the main verb slightly.
Use modals to suggest, ask permission, be polite etc.
E.g. You should go to bed.
In English tenses Regular verbs end with -ed / -d.
Used in the “simple past tense”.
E.g. Sally walked to school.
A linking verb links the subject with a word (adjective),
that gives information about the subject.
E.g. Jenny felt sleepy after dinner.
Irregular Verbs don’t end with -ed / -d.
The verb can change if it’s Verb 1, Verb 2, or Verb 3.
E.g. Eat / ate / eaten. Jimmy ate candy all day.
When you use a verb and preposition together it’s called a phrasal verb.
E.g. Get in the car.
Here “get in” is the phrasal verb.
A comparative adjective compared two things.
E.g. The boy is taller than the girl.
E.g. The red pen is more expensive than the blue pen.
A superlative adjective compares more that two things.
E.g. That is the tallest building in town.
E.g. The girl is the smartest in the class.
A possessive adjective shows ownership and comes before the noun. It is similar to a possessive pronoun but it doesn’t replace the noun.
E.g. This is my ruler.
An interrogative adjective begins a question sentence
and is followed by a noun or pronoun.
E.g. What, Which, Whose. “What food do you want?”
An indefinite adjective is used to describe a whole group,
and doesn’t point out specific nouns in the group.
E.g. Some of the apples were rotten.
A distributive adjective refers to individuals in a group.
Example words are, “either, neither, both, each and every”
E.g. Every person in the office will get a bonus.
An attributive adjective tells us what feature of a noun we’re interested in.
E.g. I love the quiet night.
Here I love the night because it is quite.
A participial adjective is an adjective that acts like a participle.
It usually ends with -ed or -ing and comes from verbs.
E.g. This is an aged book.
A limiting adjective restricts, instead of describing the noun or pronoun.
E.g. These are your cookies..
A predicate adjective is an adjective found not next to the noun or pronoun.
E.g Bob is awesome.
Adverbs of time gives information “when” a verb is done.
E.g. Yesterday I went to school.
When did I go to school? Yesterday.
Adverbs of manner describes how a task was carried out.
E.g. Mark sang loudly in the shower.
How did Mark sing? Loudly!
Adverbs of Place describes “where” a verb is happening.
E.g. It is hot let’s go inside.
Where should we go? Inside.
Adverbs of Frequency descibes “how often” a verb is happening.
E.g. I usually go to bed late.
How often do you go to bed late? Usually.
Adverbs of Degree gives the information “how much” or to what level a verb is done.
E.g. Today is incredibly hot.
To what level do you think it was hot? Incredibly hot!
A demonstrative pronoun points at something.
E.g. I like that dress, not this one.
“This” and “That are demonstrative pronouns.
An indefinite pronoun makes a non-specific reference.
E.g. Anyone can learn English.
Anyone does not refer to a specific person.
A reflexive pronoun is a pronoun that refers back to a person or thing.
These pronouns end with -self / -selves.
E.g. I cannot look at myself.
A relative pronoun relates one part of a sentence with another.
E.g. The man who fell got hurt.
Relative pronouns include, who, whom, when, why, where, whose, that.
An interrogative pronoun asks a question.
E.g. What should I do now?
Interrogative pronouns include, What, whom, who.
A receprocal pronoun show mutual action.
E.g. We both like each other.
Receprocal pronouns include, One another, each other.
Prepositions of time are:
at – a specific time (e.g. at 6:00am)
on – days (eg. on Friday)
in – months (e.g. in June)
Prepositions of place are:
in – spaces (e.g. in my bag)
on – place (e.g. on the table)
at – specific place (e.g. at the gate)
Prepositions of movement are:
in, out, around, over, under,
through, up, down, towards, across.
E.g. The boat went under the bridge.
Prepositions of manner are words that show
the way something happens.
Words like, by, as, in, with.
E.g. She worked as a doctor.
Prepositions of agent is a thing that is the caused by another thing.
E.g. The song was sang by Elvis.
Here “by” is the agent. We can also use “with”
Prepositions of measure specifies a value or measurement.
They are the words, By, of, at.
E.g. He was late by 10 minutes.
Prepositions of possession communicate that
something belongs to a person, animal or thing.
Use the words, Of, In, At, With, On.
E.g. I love a man with a boat.
A subordinating conjunction links
dependent clauses to independent clauses.
The subordinate clause clarifies the relationship between
the two clauses, to show contrast or cause-and-effect.
Examples conjunctions are; because, since and after.
E.g. I am lonely since we broke up.
A correlative conjunction works in pairs to join words together.
The parts in the sentence carry equal importance.
Examples of correlative conjunctions are;
either or, such that / not only, but also
E.g. Not only is she cute, but also smart.
A coordinating conjunction links equal parts of a sentence
such as ; phrases or independent clauses.
A comma (,) joins two independent clauses.
at – specific place (e.g. at the gate)
Examples of coordinating conjunctions;
For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, and So.
It’s easy to remember FANBOYS.
E.g. I like chocolate ice-cream, and I like strawberry ice-cream.
Are we referring to a specific noun or not?
An example of an article is; a / an, the.
the = definite article
a/an = indefinite article
E.g. I want to buy a cat. (here I want to buy any cat, not a specific one)
E.g. I want to buy the cat. (here I want to buy a specific cat)
A demonstrative determiner gives
information about a noun
and gives us reference if it is close are far away.
An example is; this, that, these, those.
This – something that is close to us.
That – something that is far away.
These – things that are close.
Those – for things that are far away from us.
This and that are singular, and these and those are plural.
Possessive determiners shows possession (or ownership)
of a noun (someone, something, or some place).
An example of a possessive determiner is;
1st person; my / our
2nd person; your
3rd person; his, her, its / their
Quantifiers tells us (or suggests) the amount of a noun.
An example of a quantifier includes; most, more, some, many, much.
All, every, most, many, some, (a) few, any, no (countable nouns)
much, (a) little, least, most, no (uncountable nouns)
Quantifiers determiners are written in front of an adjective.